Melasma is a disease characterized by dark spots, usually on the face. Its onset is related to hormonal factors (pregnancy, contraceptive use), genetic factors and has as a triggering factor the exposure to light (solar and visible light).
Solar Melanoses (Senile Spot)
Senna spots, or solar melanoses, are caused by the sun over the years and so are more common with advancing age. They are brown stains of varying sizes that appear in areas very exposed to the sun, such as the face, back of hands and arms, neck and shoulders. They are more common in people with fair skin.
Sardines are dark, brownish, punctate (precisely defined) spots that especially cover the face, shoulders, arms, legs and anterior and posterior thorax, which are the areas with the greatest sun exposure. It has a hereditary characteristic, since they are more frequent in people of skin and clear eyes, that have greater sensitivity to the sun. The onset of freckles occurs in adolescence and goes into adulthood, when they usually decline.
Daily sunscreens, depigmenting creams, acids, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen and peels, are useful in the treatment of blemishes. Intense pulsed light and fractional CO2 laser and other lasers can be even more effective.